Allele-specific KRAS inhibitors are an emerging class of cancer therapies. KRAS mutant
(KRASMUT) non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) exhibit heterogeneous outcomes, driven
by differences in underlying biology shaped by co-mutations. In contrast to KRASG12C
NSCLC, KRASG12D NSCLC is associated with low/never-smoking status and is largely uncharacterized.
AbstractKRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene, harboring mutations in approximately one in seven cancers. Allele-specific KRASG12C inhibitors are currently changing the treatment paradigm for patients with KRASG12C-mutated non–small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. The success of addressing a previously elusive KRAS allele has fueled drug discovery efforts for all KRAS mutants. Pan-KRAS drugs have the potential to address broad patient populations, including KRASG12D-, KRASG12V-, KRASG13D-, KRASG12R-, and KRASG12A-mutant or KRAS wild-type–amplified cancers, as well as cancers with acquired resistance to KRASG12C inhibitors. Here, we review actively pursued allele-specific and pan-KRAS inhibition strategies and their potential utility.Significance:. Mutant-selective KRASG12C inhibitors target a fraction (approximately 13.6%) of all KRAS-driven cancers. A broad arsenal of KRAS drugs is needed to comprehensively conquer KRAS-driven cancers. Conceptually, we foresee two future classes of KRAS medicines: mutant-selective KRAS drugs targeting individual variant alleles and pan-KRAS therapeutics targeting a broad range of KRAS alterations.